March Research Round-Up

Congratulations to our amazing research teams here in the Department of Chemistry for their publications this month!

Bowman Group

Nandi, A., Qu, C., & Bowman, J. M. (2019). Using Gradients in Permutationally Invariant Polynomial Potential fitting: A Demonstration for CH4 Using as Few as 100 ConfigurationsJournal of chemical theory and computation.

Davies Group

Davies, H.M.L., Chennamadhavuni, S., Martin, T.J., Childers, S.R. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 15 /145,323

Evangelista Group

Li, C., & Evangelista, F. A. (2019). Multireference Theories of Electron Correlation Based on the Driven Similarity Renormalization GroupAnnual review of physical chemistry70.

Hill Group

Kaledin, A. L., Hill, C. L., Lian, T., & Musaev, D. G. (2019). Modulating electronic coupling at the quantum dot/molecule interface by wavefunction engineeringThe Journal of Chemical Physics150(12), 124704.

Lian Group

Li, Q., Liu, Q., Schaller, R. D., & Lian, T. (2019). Reducing Optical Gain Threshold in Two-Dimensional CdSe Nanoplatelets by Giant Oscillator Strength Transition EffectThe journal of physical chemistry letters.

Kaledin, A. L., Hill, C. L., Lian, T., & Musaev, D. G. (2019). Modulating electronic coupling at the quantum dot/molecule interface by wavefunction engineeringThe Journal of Chemical Physics150(12), 124704.

Lynn Group

Taran, O., Patel, V., & Lynn, D. (2019). Small Molecules Reaction Network That Models ROS Dynamic of the RhizosphereChemical Communications.

Musaev Group

Kaledin, A. L., Hill, C. L., Lian, T., & Musaev, D. G. (2019). Modulating electronic coupling at the quantum dot/molecule interface by wavefunction engineeringThe Journal of Chemical Physics150(12), 124704.

Salaita Group

Sylber, C., Petree, J., Baker, N., Salaita, K., & Wongtrakool, C. (2019). 3582 Scavenger Receptor Expression is Differentially Affected by DNAzyme-Gold Nanoparticle ConjugatesJournal of Clinical and Translational Science3(s1), 20-21.

Wuest Group

Scharnow, A. M., Solinski, A. E., & Wuest, W. M. (2019). Targeting S. mutans biofilms: a perspective on preventing dental cariesMedChemComm.

Post, S., Shapiro, J., & Wuest, W. (2019). Connecting iron acquisition and biofilm formation in the ESKAPE pathogens as a strategy for combatting antibiotic resistanceMedChemComm.

February Research Round-Up

Congratulations to our amazing research teams here in the Department of Chemistry for their publications this month!

Conticello Group

Kreutzberger, M. A., Hughes, S., Conticello, V., & Egelman, E. H. (2019). Structural Studies of the T-and RP4-Pili using Cryo-EMBiophysical Journal116(3), 573a.

Dunham Group

Mehrani, A., Hoffer, E. D., Goralski, T. D., Keiler, K. C., Dunham, C. M., & Stagg, S. (2019). Investigating the Structural Mechanism of the Stalled Bacterial Ribosome Bound to a Drug that Targets Trans-TranslationBiophysical Journal116(3), 573a-574a.

Nguyen, H. A., Hoffer, E. D., & Dunham, C. M. (2019). Importance of tRNA anticodon loop modification and a conserved, noncanonical anticodon stem pairing in tRNAProCGG for decodingJournal of Biological Chemistry, jbc-RA119.

Schureck, M. A., Meisner, J., Hoffer, E. D., Wang, D., Onuoha, N., Ei Cho, S., … & Dunham, C. M. (2019). Structural basis of transcriptional regulation by the HigA antitoxinMolecular microbiology.

Heaven Group

Khvatov, N. A., Zagidullin, M. V., Tolstov, G. I., Medvedkov, I. A., Mebel, A. M., Heaven, M. C., & Azyazov, V. N. (2019). Product Channels of the reactions of O2 (b1Σg+)Chemical Physics.

Hill Group

Hill, C., & Sullivan, K. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 16/061,327.

Lian Group

Lian, T., Koper, M. T., Reuter, K., & Subotnik, J. E. (2019). Special Topic on Interfacial Electrochemistry and Photo (electro) catalysis.

Musaev Group

Gair, J., Haines, B. E., Filatov, A. S., Musaev, D. G., & Lewis, J. C. (2019). Di-Palladium Complexes are Active Catalysts for Mono-N-Protected Amino Acid Accelerated Enantioselective CH Functionalization.

Salaita Group

Brockman, J. M., & Salaita, K. (2019). Mechanical Proofreading: A General Mechanism to Enhance the Fidelity of Information Transfer Between Cells Phys. 7: 14. doi: 10.3389/fphy.

Blanchard, A., & Salaita, K. (2019). Autochemophoretic DNA Motors Generate 100+ Piconewton ForcesBiophysical Journal116(3), 292a-293a.

Rao, T. C., Ma, V. P. Y., Urner, T. M., Grandhi, S., Salaita, K., & Mattheyses, A. L. (2019). EGFR Activation Enables Increased Integrin Forces and Organization of Mature Focal AdhesionsBiophysical Journal116(3), 413a.

Quach, M. E., Combs, D., Salaita, K., & Li, R. (2019). Force-Induced Unfolding of a Mechanosensory Domain in Platelet Glycoprotein (Gp) Ib-IX under Solution and Adherent ConditionsBiophysical Journal116(3), 376a.

Weinert Group

Cary, S. P., Boon, E. M., Weinert, E., Winger, J. A., & Marletta, M. A. (2019). U.S. Patent Application No. 10/202,428.

 

December Research Round-Up

Congratulations to our amazing research teams here in the Department of Chemistry for their publications this month!

Bowman Group

Babikov, D., Benoit, D., Bowman, J., Burd, T., Clary, D., Donovan, R., … & Kirrander, A. (2018). Quantum dynamics of isolated molecules: general discussionFaraday discussions.

Ban, L., Bowman, J., Bradforth, S., Chambaud, G., Dracinsky, M., Fischer, I., … & McCoy, A. B. (2018). Molecules in confinement in liquid solvents: general discussionFaraday discussions.

Qu, C., & Bowman, J. M. (2018). Assessing the Importance of the H2 (H2O) 2 3-Body Interaction on the Vibrational Frequency Shift of H2 in the sII Clathrate Hydrate and Comparison with ExperimentThe Journal of Physical Chemistry A.

Davies Group

Fu, J., Ren, Z., Bacsa, J., Musaev, D. G., & Davies, H. M. (2018). Desymmetrization of cyclohexanes by site-and stereoselective C–H functionalizationNature564(7736), 395.

Dyer Group

Zhao, J., Su, H., Vansuch, G. E., Liu, Z., Salaita, K., & Dyer, R. B. (2018). Localized Nanoscale Heating Leads to Ultrafast Hydrogel Volume-Phase TransitionACS nano.

Heaven Group

Kaledin, L. A., Kaledin, A. L., & Heaven, M. C. (2019). The electronic structure of thorium monoxide: Ligand field assignment of states in the range 0–5 eVJournal of computational chemistry40(2), 430-446.

Kindt Group

Zhang, X., Arce, J. G., & Kindt, J. T. (2018). Derivation of micelle size-dependent free energies of aggregation for octyl phosphocholine from molecular dynamics simulationFluid Phase Equilibria.

Lynn Group

McGill, T. L., Williams, L. C., Mulford, D. R., Blakey, S. B., Harris, R. J., Kindt, J. T., … & Powell, N. L. (2018). Chemistry Unbound: Designing a New Four-Year Undergraduate CurriculumJournal of Chemical Education.

Musaev Group

Fu, J., Ren, Z., Bacsa, J., Musaev, D. G., & Davies, H. M. (2018). Desymmetrization of cyclohexanes by site-and stereoselective C–H functionalizationNature564(7736), 395.

Salaita Group

Zhao, J., Su, H., Vansuch, G. E., Liu, Z., Salaita, K., & Dyer, R. B. (2018). Localized Nanoscale Heating Leads to Ultrafast Hydrogel Volume-Phase TransitionACS nano.

November Research Round-Up

Congratulations to our amazing research teams here in the Department of Chemistry for their publications this month!

Bowman Group:

Chen, Q., & Bowman, J. M. (2018). Quantum approaches to vibrational dynamics and spectroscopy: is ease of interpretation sacrificed as rigor increases?Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics.

Yang, B., Zhang, P., Chen, Q., Stancil, P., Bowman, J. M., Naduvalath, B., & Forrey, R. C. (2018). Inelastic Vibrational Dynamics of CS in Collision with H2 Using a Full-dimensional Potential Energy SurfacePhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics.

Dunham Group:

Hong, S., Sunita, S., Maehigashi, T., Hoffer, E. D., Dunkle, J. A., & Dunham, C. M. (2018). Mechanism of tRNA-mediated+ 1 ribosomal frameshiftingProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(44), 11226-11231.

Rivera, S., Young, P. G., Hoffer, E. D., Vansuch, G. E., Metzler, C. L., Dunham, C. M., & Weinert, E. E. (2018). Structural Insights into Oxygen-Dependent Signal Transduction within Globin Coupled SensorsInorganic chemistry.

Hoffer, E. D., Maehigashi, T., Fredrick, K., & Dunham, C. M. (2018). Ribosomal ambiguity (ram) mutations promote the open (off) to closed (on) transition and thereby increase miscodingNucleic Acids Research.

Hill Group:

Sullivan, K. P., Wieliczko, M., Kim, M., Yin, Q., Collins-Wildman, D. L., Mehta, A. K., … & Hill, C. L. (2018). Speciation and Dynamics in the [Co4V2W18O68] 10-/Co (II) aq/CoOx Catalytic Water Oxidation SystemACS Catalysis.

Kaledin, A. L., Troya, D., Karwacki, C. J., Balboa, A., Gordon, W. O., Morris, J. R., … & Musaev, D. G. (2018). Key Mechanistic Details of Paraoxon Decomposition by Polyoxometalates: Critical Role of Para-Nitro SubstitutionChemical Physics.

Lian Group:

Clark, M. L., Ge, A., Videla, P. E., Rudshteyn, B., Miller, C. J., Song, J., … & Kubiak, C. P. (2018). CO2 Reduction Catalysts on Gold Electrode Surfaces Influenced by Large Electric FieldsJournal of the American Chemical Society.

Lutz Group:

Williams, E., Jung, S. M., Coffman, J. L., & Lutz, S. (2018). Pore engineering for enhanced mass transport in encapsulin nano-compartmentsACS synthetic biology.

Musaev Group:

Kaledin, A. L., Troya, D., Karwacki, C. J., Balboa, A., Gordon, W. O., Morris, J. R., … & Musaev, D. G. (2018). Key Mechanistic Details of Paraoxon Decomposition by Polyoxometalates: Critical Role of Para-Nitro Substitution. Chemical Physics.

Salaita Group:

Hong, J., Ge, C., Jothikumar, P., Yuan, Z., Liu, B., Bai, K., … & Palin, A. (2018). A TCR mechanotransduction signaling loop induces negative selection in the thymusNature Immunology, 1.

Weinert Group

Rivera, S., Young, P. G., Hoffer, E. D., Vansuch, G. E., Metzler, C. L., Dunham, C. M., & Weinert, E. E. (2018). Structural Insights into Oxygen-Dependent Signal Transduction within Globin Coupled SensorsInorganic chemistry.

Fontaine, B. M., Duggal, Y., & Weinert, E. E. (2018). Exploring the Links Between Nucleotide Signaling and Quorum Sensing Pathways in Regulating Bacterial VirulenceACS infectious diseases.

Wuest Group:

Kontos, R. C., Schallenhammer, S. A., Bentley, B. S., Morrison, K. R., Feliciano, J. A., Tasca, J. A., … & Minbiole, K. P. (2018). An Investigation Into Rigidity‐Activity Relationships in bisQAC Amphiphilic AntisepticsChemMedChem.

Shapiro, J. A., Varga, J. J., Parsonage, D., Walton, W., Redinbo, M. R., Ross, L. J., … & Goldberg, J. B. (2018). Identification of Specific and Non‐specific Inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis Type III Pantothenate Kinase (PanK)ChemMedChem.

Kilgore, M. B., Morrison, K. R., Wuest, W. M., & Chandler, J. D. (2018). Influence of pH on the reactions of heme peroxidase-derived oxidants with R19SFree Radical Biology and Medicine128, S101-S102.

Emory Chemistry Students Celebrate NSF GRFP Awards

Congratulations to Dayna Patterson (Weinert Group) and Kevin Hoang (EC 17′; Davies Group) for being awarded 2018 Graduate Research Fellowships from the National Science Foundation!

Congratulations also to Brendan Deal (Salaita Group) and Michael Hollerbach (Chemistry Graduate Program entering class of 2018) who received Honorable Mentions.

For the 2016 competition, NSF received over 12,000 applications and made 2,000 award offers.

The NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program recognizes and supports outstanding graduate students in NSF-supported science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines who are pursuing research-based Master’s and doctoral degrees at accredited United States institutions. As the oldest graduate fellowship of its kind, the GRFP has a long history of selecting recipients who achieve high levels of success in their future academic and professional careers.

Meet the Honorees

Dayna Patterson came to Emory from Houston Baptist University where she had the opportunity to engage in undergraduate research with the Welch Foundation and as an NSF REU participant at Baylor University. Her research in  the Weinert Group focuses on understanding how bacteria change their phenotypes in response to environmental signals. In January 2018, Dayna received the Carl Storm Underrepresented Minority Fellowship to attend the Gordon Research Conference on Metals in Biology and share her research. She has also shared her research with the Atlanta community through the Atlanta Science Festival. She is the current treasurer for Pi Alpha Chemical Society and an associate fellow with the NIH-funded Initiative to Maximize Student Development.

Kevin Hoang conducted undergraduate research in the Davies Group at Emory and graduated in 2017 with a B.S. in chemistry. He is now at Yale University in the Herzon Laboratory.

Brendan Deal is a second year Ph.D. candidate in the lab of Dr. Khalid Salaita. He completed his undergraduate studies at Davidson College just outside of Charlotte, North Carolina. Brendan’s research is focused on the development of DNA-nanoparticle conjugates with potential applications in the fields of medicine and biotechnology.

 

Michael Hollerbach will be joining Emory this summer after receiving a B.S. in Biochemistry from the College of Charleston in South Carolina.  He chose Emory after seeing all of the exciting research opportunities and looks forward to participating in upcoming research rotations, starting with a summer rotation in the McDonald Group.  His research interests are in Organic Chemistry with a focus on small molecule synthesis and methodology development.  Currently, he is teaching Honors Chemistry at a local high school and wrapping up his undergraduate research at the College of Charleston. At Emory, he looks forward to the opportunity to share his love of Chemistry as a TA and to participate in outreach in the Atlanta community.

Salaita Group Research on “Picky Platelets” Featured in Medical Express

Khalid Salaita
Khalid Salaita

Research from the Salaita Group is featured in a review in Medical Express. Written by Emory’s own Carol Clark, the article gives an overview of two recent journal publications covering important results related to triggering clotting in blood platelets.

“We show conclusively that, in order to activate clotting, the cell needs a targeted force of a magnitude of just a few piconewtons—or a force about a billion times less than the weight of a staple,” says Khalid Salaita, associate professor in Emory University’s Department of Chemistry and the lead author of the studies. “The real surprise we found is that platelets care about the direction of that force and that it has to be lateral. They’re very picky. But they should be picky because otherwise they might accidentally create a clot. That’s what causes strokes.”

Read the full review, and find links to the journal articles, at the link.

Update 12/20/17: Additional coverage in Science Daily!

Victor Ma Receives Predoctoral to Postdoctoral Fellow Transition Award

Victor Ma, a fourth-year graduate student in the lab of Dr. Khalid Salaita, was recently selected as one of twenty-six Predoctoroal to Postdoctoral Fellow Transition Award Fellows from the National Institute of Health. This award will provide Victor with two years of funding to complete his doctoral thesis and an additional four years of funding for future postdoc training. In the Salaita lab, with co-mentorship by Dr. Brian Evavold, Victor’s research focuses on developing technologies to study mechanobiology at the molecular scale. With an ultimate goal of establishing an alternative mechanism for regulating T cell activity, he studies the roles of mechanical forces in T cell activation, whether these forces are coordinately controlled by mechano-sensitive proteins, and the importance of these forces for T cell biological function. The findings from these studies can provide insight into a potential strategy for developing effective immunotherapies.

In his postdoc, Victor plans on transitioning into the field of tumor immunology, where he hopes to capitalize on his skillset to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for preventing T cells from interacting with tumor cells. “My ultimate career goal is to become an independent investigator at a research-intensive university, where I can assume teaching duties and direct a research lab that combines knowledge from various disciplines to innovate career research,” says Victor. “This award will surely serve as a stepping stone to help achieve my goal!”

Congratulations, Victor!

Congratulations, Dr. Galior!

Kornelia poses with her group and her best friend after a successful defense.
Kornelia poses with her group and her best friend after a successful defense.

Kornelia Galior successfully defended her thesis, “Protein-Based Tension Probes: From Mapping Integrin Adhesion Forces to the Mechanopharmacology of Smooth Muscle Cells” on Wednesday, April 12th, 2017. Kornelia’s thesis committed was led by Khalid Salaita with Vince Conticello and David Lynn as additional members.

During her time at Emory, Kornelia received two Quayle awards. She will start a clinical chemistry fellowship at the Mayo Clinic in July.

Congratulations, Kornelia!

Graduate Student Spotlight: Yang Liu Develops a New Method for Chemistry with “Roots” in Biology

Yang Liu in the lab. Photo provided by Yang Liu.
Yang Liu in the lab. Photo provided by Yang Liu.

Yang Liu (Salaita Group) is bringing new techniques to the emerging field of mechanobiology; at the same time, he’s returning to his roots.

Literally. As in, plants.

Yang’s father is an academic biologist studying agriculture in China.

“I think in the beginning, my dad really wanted me to be a biologist,” says Yang. “But normally kids don’t want to pursue the same career path as their parents.”

As an undergraduate in China, Yang started out studying mechanical engineering. Then, he attended a general chemistry lecture with a famous chemistry professor who made a convincing case for the importance of the discipline. “He said, ‘chemistry is the central science connecting physical sciences, life sciences and applied sciences all together,’’ says Yang. “And I was so fascinated by it. And I changed my major.”

At Emory, Yang joined the lab of Khalid Salaita. His research in the Salaita Group takes a novel approach to a common scientific question: how does the immune system recognizes and eliminates “invaders”, such as pathogens or cancer cells? Most research explores how chemical signals mediate this process. Yang’s work expands on existing work in the Salaita Group that focuses on mechanical signaling—the way that immune cells physically probe their targets within the body. “Cells can touch and apply forces to one another,” explains Yang, a process he refers to as a “handshake.” Yang’s research develops tools that allow scientists to “see” these kinds of physical interactions.

Gold nanoparticle (yellow) with elastic spring molecules (gray) bound to a fluorophore and ligand (black). When a ligand binds to a membrane receptor (cyan), the spring “pulls” and the fluorophore elicits a signal (bright white).
Gold nanoparticle (yellow) with elastic spring molecules (gray) bound to a fluorophore and ligand (black). When a ligand binds to a membrane receptor (cyan), the spring “pulls” and the fluorophore elicits a signal (bright white). Photo provided by Yang Liu.

Specifically, Yang has developed a technique named molecular tension fluorescence microscopy (MTFM) that employs single elastic molecules—DNA, protein, and polymer— as sensors to visualize membrane receptor mediated forces at the piconewton level. “One piconewton is the weight of one trillionth of an apple and surprisingly, pN forces regulate biochemical signaling pathways,” says Yang. These forces are too small for scientists to measure using conventional methods. Existing tools aren’t sensitive enough or they are inefficient.

“Until our method kicks in,” says Yang.

Yang has combined nanotechnology and the “easy” surface chemistry of gold nanoparticles to make MTFM probes more effective. “These gold particle sensors are spring scales at nanoscale ,” says Yang. “Compared to previous techniques, these probes are of significantly enhanced sensitivity, stability and amenable for detecting forces mediated by almost all kinds of cell receptors.”

The improvements have caught the attention of researchers in other Emory units—and even nationally and internationally. Yang has collaborated with the Evavold Lab in the Department of Immunology at Emory to help them measure mechanical forces mediated by different immune cells. He also has collaborators from as far away as New York and Germany.

Regarding these collaborations, Yang says: “The need to be trained [to use this method] is very high. The method is not hard, it’s easy. So people usually spend a few days and they should be able to master it…and we still maintain quite tight collaboration. We not only teach them how to make it, we actually get involved in the scientific questions they care about and continue this collaboration.”

Recently, Yang’s success in developing the new method was recognized with the department’s highest graduate student honor, the Quayle Outstanding Student Award. Speaking of Yang’s progress shortly after the award ceremony, advisor Khalid Salaita praised Yang’s work ethic as well as his science: “Yang was a real pleasure to have in the lab. He was incredibly thoughtful, well read, and intensely motivated. More than anyone else I’ve worked with, Yang displayed a keen instinct for experimental design. He spent countless hours in the dark microscope room collecting data and working around the clock fueled up with his favorite bbq Pringles and excited by the science.”

The award ceremony was followed swiftly by another milestone—a successful PhD defense. Next, Yang is headed to John’s Hopkins University where he will work in the lab of Dr. Taekjip Ha, a world leader in the development of single molecule fluorescence microscopy and force spectroscopy.

Salaita Group "Logo"
Salaita Group Logo

Yang’s pioneering research wasn’t always smooth sailing. “I didn’t get my first experiment done until the first semester of my third year. Everything before that didn’t work.” He credits his perseverance to his father’s example—“agriculture is even slower, waiting for the growth of plants. You can only do two experiments a year!”—as well as his own scientific curiosity. His advisor, Khalid Salaita, was also an inspiration throughout the process. “He is always passionate and ignited my love for science. You love it and you work hard to make something meaningful to the society and also make yourself valuable, so, that’s what I’d like to do and that’s because of these two people.”

Does all this mean that Yang has overcome his initial reluctance to follow in his father’s footsteps towards biology?

“I think I’m going back to the route, mining chemistry, biology. In the beginning I was against it, but I do like it.” Still, chemistry has his heart. “Chemists not only create new tools, new theories and new materials, but also create new opportunities. And if you want to study biology as a chemist, there are some advantages too because you can understand and explore the secret of life at the molecular level.”

Graduate student Yun Zhang wins poster prize

Chemistry graduate student Yun Zhang (Salaita Group) received an award for “Best Poster” at the 2015 Gordon Research Conference “Fibronectin, Integrins & Related Molecules.” The conference, a key scientific meeting for those interested in integrins and the interactions between cells with the extracellular matrix in development, homeostasis and disease, took place February 10th – 15th at the Ventura Beach Marriott, Ventura, California.

Zhang’s poster was presented as part of the session “”Mechanobiology and Matrix Dynamics.” The full abstract for the poster appears below:

Mapping integrin forces with high spatial and temporal resolution during platelet activation

Yun Zhang, Yongzhi Qui, Wilbur Lam, Khalid Salaita

Platelets play an essential role in hemostatic response by forming blood clots that seal the damaged vessel sites and promote vascular healing. Through the coordination of physical-chemical interaction between integrin aIIbb3, actin, and myosin, platelets adhere and generate forces to strengthen their adhesion to the exposed extracellular matrix and fibrin mesh. Recent work suggests that platelets sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix and respond by tuning their activation levels. Nonetheless, a fundamental question pertaining to the role of mechanics in platelet activation is whether the aIIbb3 integrins experience mechanical tension during activation and its precise magnitude, and spatial and temporal distribution during platelet activation. To address this question, we first immobilized integrin ligands onto a supported lipid membrane and found that laterally mobility markedly dampens the activity of ligands for aIIbb3   integrins. Next, we developed DNA-based fluorescence tension probes to visualize piconewton scale forces during platelet activation cascades. These probes provided the highest resolution force maps associated with platelet activation to date. Interestingly, we found that platelets exert force through filopodia nearly instantaneously when activated by contact with the sensor surface. As filopodia coalesced to form circumferential lamellae, the tension was greatly increased and specifically accumulated at the cell periphery and the center of the cell area. The tension at the center of the platelet was highly influenced by myosin contractility. Finally, By comparing the tension signal associated with a small library of integrin ligands that bind aIIbb3, we found that platelet-generated forces are highly dependent on the chemical identify of the ligands. For example, cyclic RGD ligands experience over 19 pN of tension, whereas the HHLGGAKQAGD ligand experience values of tension greater than 2.4 pN but lower than 4.2 pN. Taken together, this data demonstrates that mechanical forces play a critical role in platelet activation and newly emerging molecular tension probes provide a power approach to elucidate the role of integrin tension in platelet activation. This may potentially guide new hemostatic or antithrombotic treatments.