A Look at Chinese Diaspora in Peru through the Noodle

Abstract: Latin America is a region heavily impacted by historical events that have led to a wide diversification of people (Oxford Reference, 2019). Despite mass erasures of cultures through the period of colonization and indentured servitude in Latin America, several aspects of these cultures have been persevered and have aided in the shaping of modern Latin America. This paper addresses the displacement of the Chinese people in Latin America since the mid 19th century (Chang-Rodríguez,1958). Specifically, the paper will analyze the Chinese diaspora and assimilation in Peru through the use of foods such as the noodle. Which has led to the creation of the unique Chinese-Peruvian culture that has impacted Peru’s culinary, social, and political history forever.

Through a western lens, we can understand Latin America to be one of the few regions only distinguished by an ethnicity (Latino/a/x) and not by a prevailing race. That is because Latin America has been widely impacted by its indigenous civilizations, European colonization, the Atlantic slave trade, migrations of Asian indentured servants, etc, (Oxford Reference, 2019). As described by Dr. Fernandez of Harvard University, the word Latino serves as a category for anyone from Latin America or of Latin American descent to be classified under, regardless of race or other ethnic backgrounds (Fernandez, 2018). Unfortunately, there is a tendency for many Latin Americans to erase the entirety of their ethnic backgrounds by only preserving the European aspects. There is a preference for European looks and heritage in Latina America, that impacts the stories and history you hear about your own people. Despite this, the wide categorization of Latin Americans is in part due to the resulting ambiguity of many years of intermixing between different races/ethnicity groups.

This diversification of people has a long and rather unpleasant history in Latin America. By the end of the slave trade there were approximately 12.5 million Africans taken to the Americas, where only about 400,000 African slaves made it to the U.S. and the remaining 10.5 million that survived were taken to Latin America and the Caribbean (Gates, 2012). A startling statistic that not many people associate with the founding of current Latin America. This migration of people has impacted every aspect of Latin American culture such as cuisine, music, dance, religion, and even down to the different uses of the Spanish language. I bring this up to highlight, that despite these mass erasures of cultures that occurred during periods of colonization such as Spanish settling in what is now known as the Philippines that led to trade with South America, some original practices and traditions of the original cultures still remain prevalent (Chang-Rodríguez,1958).

When zooming in on Asian history in Latin America we can think of a couple major countries. During the 19th century, the prosperity of the tea industry was introduced to Brazil leading to a migration of expert tea workers from China, forming “the first organized Asiatic colony in the New World” (Chang-Rodríguez,1958). Inner turmoil within Latin America, due to the end the slave trade and crippling economic systems from Spanish rule, countries in Latin America saw a need for indentured servants. Contracted from China some of the first indentured servants arrived in Cuba in 1847, many of whom died or committed suicide on the voyage. (Chang-Rodríguez,1958).  Similarly, Peru suffered a great labor shortage due to a decrease in population and lack of contribution to labor forces by indigenous people. Peru opened up it’s legislation to encourage foreigners to move to the country’s Amazonian region by offering them privileges in exchange for work. This 1849 immigration law was the foundation for thousands of Chinese settlements in Peru (Chang-Rodríguez,1958).

Unfortunately, several cases occurred where many indentured servants were taken in inhumane conditions from China to work in Peru. By the end of the 19th century more than 100,000 Chinese indentured laborers arrived in Peru (Lausent-Herrera, 2009). Many of whom were men and their contracts did not allow them to have contact with local women, however, larger cities such as Lima were many Chinese laborers “were employed as domestic servants… [had] greater liberty” leading to more mixed-race births (Lausent-Herrera, 2009). Years of discriminatory practices against Chinese people in the U.S. and other countries, made Lima, Peru stand out because the “Hispanic cultural tradition does not emphasize racial difference” (Wong, 2009). Despite there still being subtle racism and discrimination, as mentioned prior there were no legal restrictions in Lima, on miscegenation between Chinese and Peruvian people, aiding in the assimilation of Chinese people and culture to what we know it to be in modern day Peru (Wong, 2009).

Nevertheless, life for Chinese Peruvians was very difficult, they had no recognition from their Chinese government and little from the Peruvian government. Torn between two worlds, Chinese Peruvians were looked down upon by native Chinese people for being “half-bloods” and they were not represented in Peru for being of Asian descent (Lausent-Herrera, 2009). During the mid to late 1900s, many Peruvian Chinese people were unsure to return to China or to stay in Peru. Both countries were facing issues with communist dictatorship like regimes, however, Peru for some Chinese people provided a way to be protected by what was occurring in mainland China while conditions bettered for Peru with the return of democracy in 1980 (Lausent-Herrera, 2009). During this time, the Chinese Peruvian culinary scene began to flourish because new Chinese cooks whom were less conservative began creating new dishes that preserved and emphasized the “creole Chinese cuisine special to Peru” (Lausent-Herrera, 2009).

According to the Overseas Community Affairs Council,Republic of China, Peru is currently the Latin American country with the highest population of Chinese people and ranks 7th overall in the world for largest population of Chinese people outside of China, 1.3 million Chinese Peruvians (OCAC, R.O.C., 2005). Despite prior negative Chinese-Peru relations, this large population of Chinese people in Peru has widely shaped Peru’s culinary history. Contributing to one of the most unique and diverse food fusions, the Peru-Chinese creation of Chifa, Chinese-Peruvian cuisine. In Peru there are local restaurants known as Chifas that serve the Chinese-Peruvian cuisine known as Chifa. Chifas have become as an easier way for Chinese immigrants to spend quality time with their families because “the circulation of information concerning the family and commercial activities no longer depends on institutions” in Peru but on these Chifas (Wong& Tan, 2013). Which served as a place to continue Chinese practices, communal gatherings, gaming centers, and as a means for bringing Peruvian and Chinese people together (Wong & Tan, 2013).

Chifa serves as a sort of symbol of the amalgamation between Peru and China. A necessity for Chinese-Peruvians who felt betrayed by the lack of recognition from the Chinese government, as well as out of place in a country with majority mestizo mix of European and Indigenous people. Leaving Chinese-Peruvians in their own category in which they had to learn to maneuver and reconstruct a new Ethnic group with similar yet different practices and traditions. Preserving their culture, Chinese immigrants in Peru still held on to their culinary traditions and learned of ways to combine them with regional spices and existing food practices already home to Peru. Birthing fusion dishes such as Arroz Chaufa (Cantonese-Peruvian Fried Rice), Tallarin Saltado (Cantonese-Peruvian Chow Mein), Wanton Frito (Fried Wonton), and Lomo Saltado (Beef and vegetable stir-fry).

Moreover, what is unique about Peruvian-Chinese food is that it is fully immersed in the culture of Peru. In the U.S. we think of different ethnic foods to be separate from American food, we think of Mexican food being solely Mexican and Chinese food being solely Chinese. However, in Peru because Chifa comes from the blend of Peruvian and Chinese cultures it is thought to be entirely Peruvian in origin. Much like there is little racial distinction amongst Latin Americas, that applies to all aspects including food which is just broadly defined as the region where the food originated. Peruvians have accepted and adopted many Chinese traditions in their own lives when it comes to food, serving as a source of comfort for a Chinese-Peruvians who felt a sense of displacement (Lausent-Herrera, 2009).

Peru-Chinese history is best told through immigration stories and through the use of anthropological data collection methods, such as interviews. Many of these stories are woven into the food and dishes that have emerged from such a blending of cultures. Such as that of BuzzFeed’s Stantos Loo, who is of Chinese Peruvian descent. Santos shares a touching story of his grandfather emigrating to Peru from Guangzhou and opening up a Chifa restaurant. While sharing this story he is also making a dish from his grandfather’s original menu, Chaufa de Marisco’s which is essentially a fried rice dish with mussels. Santo’s goes on to explain that this dish represents his heritage stating that he is a blend of Peruvian and Chinese cultures. He metaphorically describes the combination of ingredients in the wok as a merging of two cultures. The dish uses both Chinese and Peruvian ingredients to make a totally new cuisine. Such as the mixing of aji amarillo, which is a Peruvian chili pepper. As Santos puts it “Peru meets China” with the additions of soy sauce, oyster sauce, and sesame oil to the dish (Loo, 2019).  Traditionally, these dishes are served in large bowls with the intention of everyone to share, which is another ethnically Chinese derived practice.

There are several noodle dishes in Peru with Chinese origin, known broadly as tallarin which are made of yellow egg noodles. The tallarins come in many varieties such as Cantonese-Peruvian Chow Mein style, or aeropuerto which is a mix of chow mein and fried rice dish. There are also wonton soup dishes known as sopa wonton and styles of fried wonton known as wonton frito. In the Journal of Ethnic foods article noodles are described to be a “reflection [of] cultural traditions and customs in China” and are even described to mean “human nature” implying that noodles are obviously embedded within everyday life for Chinese people (Zhang & Guansheng, 2016). Many noodles signifying something just beyond the necessary nourishment and are used in different traditions such as the longevity noodle which is eaten on birthdays to signify a long life, as well as the consumption of dragon whisker noodles in anticipation of good weather (Zhang & Guansheng, 2016). For many Chinese Peruvians continuing to eat these noodle dishes is a method of cultural preservation and when combining the dishes with Peruvian styles of cuisine it is a means of validating and establishing the ethnic group of Chinese Peruvians.

Moreover, many of the Chinese migrants to Peru came from the Southeastern region of Guangdong, Macao, and Hong Kong bringing with them their Cantonese styles of music, art, language, and primarily cuisine. In the southern region of China, Guangzhou wonton noodles are widely popular, as well as in Hong Kong strained noodles, rickshaw noodles, and shrimp roe noodles (Zhang & Guansheng, 2016). Many of which have made their way into Peruvian tallarin styles of cuisine, although these dishes have not been exactly replicated. In addition to this, for Chinese people “cereal food… is the main source of energy for the human body” highlighting the importance noodles have in maintaining a “good diet tradition” (Zhang & Guansheng, 2016). The bringing of Cantonese style noodles to Peru demonstrates the importance of the noodle for Chinese people, being that out of all the cuisine in China several noodle dishes prevailed in the scene of Chinese-Peruvian Chifa. In fact, many restaurants in Peru have noodle manufacturers linked to them where they distribute noodles to local businesses, also observed in Peru is the appearance of wonton and stuffed breads such as mimbao “made and sold in the streets” (Lausent-Herrera, 2011).

In the “Crossing the Bridge” noodle story we learned that noodles are meant to provide the sustenance necessary to overcome a feat such as studying and the fat in the noodles also helps keep out the bad spirits. Although the story is a metaphor for the protecting and capabilities of noodles it comes to life in almost all Chinese immigrant stories. For indentured servants in Peru who endured poor quality of life and their predecessors who faced ethno-social adversity, noodles provided a source of nourishment, comfort and familiarity to Chinese laborers in their times of hardship. Many of the laborers relied heavily on food to uplift their spirts and as a means of economic improvement, they opened up restaurant’s around Lima. After time, there were so many restaurants concentrated in the area that it became known as the Barrio Chino or Chinatown (Lausent-Herrera, 2011).  These Barrio Chinos gave Chinese-Peruvians a space to practice their traditions and currently Chinese festivals such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn festival are celebrated there (Asociación Peruano China, 2015). Also home to Barrio Chinos are many temples and oracles which provide a sense of belonging for Chinese-Peruvians in a home away from home manner (Cruz, 2010).  

For Chinese migrants, there is a heavy importance tied to noodles as a means of expression and significance. The use of noodles makes its way into all culinary spheres as a symbol for cultural heritage and has persisted in Peru through 172 years of hardships associated with the displacement of Chinese-Peruvians. Serving as an entity that connects Chinese-Peruvians with their homeland as well as Chinese-Peruvians with their predecessors in Peru. The persistence of the Chinese noodles across the world stands as a testament for the tenacity of Chinese culture. Earlier in the paper, I made the note that although there have been many attempts to erase different cultures throughout history there are still parts of these cultures that remain, impacting the traditions and societies of adoptive lands. There are even instances of complete immersion where new cultures and spaces are created to accommodate the needs and traditions of these newly founded cultures, much like what occurred in Peru with Chinese-Peruvians.

The Chinese diaspora is one that is indistinguishable from the diaspora of the noodle, it’s widespread popularity cannot be recognized or understood without the acknowledgment of the beautiful culture behind the production of the noodle. I have previously mentioned and still believe the noodle can be defined as a meal that has transcended cultural, linguistic, and international boundaries through its expression of care and love when prepared, served and consumed.


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Dan Dan Noodles Creative Piece- Francesca Cabada

White is the thinly sifted flour,

water is then poured little by little in the bowl.

The flour, egg, salt, and water are combined,

fresh dough comes from the stirring of our hands.

From the dough ball a sharp dry knife quickly cuts,

Chinese homemade noodles ready to boil.

Greens of the choy sum peak through the pale noodles,

bathed in the red pepper chili oil.

Slurped through my puckered lips,

the heat grazing and greeting my taste buds.

The warmth of the noodle lighting,

a fire within me to pass along the message.

I am afraid to venture on only to be stopped,

but the need still persists.

A warming gift for the soul,

wrapped in gold and bronze pork bits.

On an iron throne she too,

awaits the flavors of the dan dan noodles.

I chose to imitate the Cold Noodle Soup with Sophora Leaves by Du Fu (712-770). I chose this piece in particular because it was written so beautifully. Although I have never tried cold noodle soup, I was able to visualize the flavors of this dish. I could relate it to a similar experience of me eating other noodles in a fire Ramen shop in Kyoto, Japan. The noodles were actually spicy and extremely hot because they are cooked using fire but the depiction of the green leaves, vegetables, and temperature/textures of the noodles in the poem took me back to my experience in Kyoto.

From the reading I was able to understand the deep-rooted history of the noodle in China. I can see that as early as the 700s AD the noodle has been enjoyed by many people. Moreover, being that there was a method to preparing cold noodle soup indicates that the tradition of eating noodles was already so advanced that there were many variations of preparation at such an early time period. The authors metaphors described the noodle dish as something elegant and honorable. Such as when Du Fu wrote that the noodles were “offer[ed] … like pearls” signifying that there is great pride in the China’s history with the permeation and consumption of the noodle.

While writing this peace I learned that my family too gives meaning to the dishes they make. Peru has a very large culinary scene and many of the people pride themselves in the beauty that the dishes carry. For me the poem highlighted that the noodle was more than just a meal of nourishment but actually a meal that fits any occasion, deserves to be shared, and should withstand the test of time. Similarly, in my cultural heritage food is not thought of as just a means of nourishment but they all carry their own messages. A hot noodle soup in the winter or when I am sick, is for warming and healing the body. A large plate of tallarines verdes (pesto like pasta) after an argument with my mother, is to remind me that I am loved and that she is sorry. While writing I was reminded of the impact food could have beyond just daily physical needs.

The cultural DNA embedded in the text is the notion that the noodle can be shared by all people from all over regardless of status. The poem describes this eagerness of showing off the noodles and that even thousands of miles away in “Cold Dew Palace” the ruler is also in need of the noodles. Indicating that this noodle dish was so great that it could transcend between class systems in ancient China, highlighting the importance, the noodle had in uniting people through the common cultural identity that is food.

Definition of the Noodle- Francesca Cabada

For many people the noodle is not only a source of nutrients, it “plays many roles… people use special food to celebrate important events and festivals” (Zhang & Guansheng, 2016). Mentioned in the Journal of Ethnic Foods reading are specific examples of the use of food outside of eating, such as the longevity noodle eaten at birthdays to signify a long life or eating noodles with gravy when moving into a new home to signify a flavored life. For many cultures there is significant meaning tied through noodles, but in particular Chinese culture seems to heavily depend on food for expression and significance. Much like Dr. Li mentioned in one of lectures that in Chinese culture being very open and upfront about emotions is not very common, love and affection for another person can be typically shown through the preparation, serving, and consumption of food.

For the Italians the noodle has a different but similar history and use. As mentioned in the History of Pasta reading, the noodle has existed in Italy for hundreds of years and it has been carried around the world wherever Italians migrated. Also mentioned in the reading is the use of fresh pasta in Italian culture signifies care and pride in the preparation of the pasta. Similar to Chinese customs of showing care and pride through food. Italians are also firm believers of the use of fresh and simple ingredients in their pasta dishes to preserve the authenticity of the dish. There is also a great deal of versatility in Italian pasta, with many different shapes and sizes such as Angel Hair/Capelli d’angelo or Farfalle (Butterfly) being mentioned in the An Intro to Italian Pasta reading. Italian noodle dishes are influenced from the region they come from such as Sicilian pasta including “many middle eastern ingredients, such as raisins and cinnamon” which has persisted from the time of Arabic invasions in Italy (Demetri, 2018).

The noodle has become a staple food in both Italian and Chinese culture because of the convince and meaning that they then grew to carry. Early noodles are traditionally made from wheat dough which is a leading crop in both China and Italy. Additionally, the noodle grew to signify different things for both the Chinese and Italians. Italians took great pride in the simplicity and freshness of preparing pasta noodles. While, in Chinese culture noodles can signify other things such as a long life. In both Italian and Chinese culture, the noodle is thought of as a healthy meal that provides many nutrients, particularly when paired with healthy sides. The noodle can be thought of as a healthy foundation for a complete meal.

After reading the story of the noodle, I have also come to understand that the noodle means more than a tasty filling meal. In the Crossing the Bridge noodle story, a young boy was banished to study with no distractions in a cottage until he was ready to pass his exams. The family chef was determined to feed him a meal that would bring comfort to the boy during his time in the cottage. The chef prepared many meals, however, they would all return untouched. The chef’s final meal was a noodle dish that he had prepared for the boy at a time of great illness. This dish of noodles was sent over and consumed by the boy. Highlighting that they were not considered a distraction to the boy’s studies but actually aided his study process. Furthermore, the story emphasized that the dish kept away the bad spirits and provide the nourishment necessary for the boy to pass his exams. This is the context that I have begun to think and define the noodle in. Noodles are a versatile nourishing meal made of dough, typically made to share and experience with others or to bring comfort to a loved one. The noodle has transcended cultural, linguistic, and international boundaries through its expression of care and love when prepared, served and consumed.

Dining Table as a Cultural Artifact – Francesca Cabada

For this assignment, I decided to go to my aunt and uncle’s home for dinner in an effort to further understand the cultural significance and uses of their dining table. Although I really only wanted to use an interview as an anthropological method my aunt Beatriz insisted that I stay and eat dinner with them making this study also use the anthropological method of a participant observer. It was relatively easy to establish who I was, given that this was my family and I was interviewing my aunt for this assignment. However, it was a little harder to convey why I was conducting this study. After many attempts to explain that a kitchen table could serve as a cultural artifact that can be used to shed light on the lives and practices of particular people/cultures, my aunt understood the purpose of the study and we could continue with the interview.

The reason I chose my aunt and uncle’s home/dining table is because they are a very traditional Peruvian family. I am very intrigued by their life because it is very different from mine, my aunt and uncle have been married for 45 years, have three adult daughters who have children of their own. Traditionally in Peru, it is very custom to live at home with your parents until you get married (which could be as late as 30+ nowadays). It is also common for the wife of the household to be a stay-at-home mom/homemaker and for the husband of the household to work. Although, my aunt and uncle emigrated from Peru to the U.S. they were still able to maintain these cultural norms, unlike my mother and immediate family who have adapted more to the fast-paced life of the U.S. My uncle and aunt also live with their 2 younger daughters who are not married and are in their late 20’s and early 30’s. Additionally, I am interested in their dining table because it is an actual art piece custom made from old wooden doors from Peru. This was very exciting to me because the table was made to serve as a decorative piece with many functions and it was genuinely a Peruvian table in a Peruvian household.

As mentioned, before I chose the anthropological methods of interview and participant-observer. I fell into the participant-observer role because my aunt instead that I stay for dinner and I felt the interview would give me a good perspective on what they use their dining table for on a day to day basis. Throughout the interview, I learned many things about the use of the kitchen table. I asked about the use of the table that did not include eating and asked my aunt to give me a rundown of their daily life. I learned that my aunt purposefully wanted the table to serve as an art piece because when no one is using it would take up space and she wanted it to still be beautiful while functional. Additionally, she wanted the table to remind her of home, which is Peru and she actually had the front doors of her home in Peru taken down to make part of the dining table. My aunt also mentioned that every day before dinner time, it is very typical for my cousins and uncle to come home from their jobs and meet at the dinner table to chat about their day. The table is usually where they first get together to decompress from their busy days typically over some tea or coffee. Then around 8 or so my aunt will serve dinner on the table and everyone usually eats for about an hour or so and most of the meals would be traditionally Peruvian dishes such as ceviche, lomo saltado, papa la huancaina, and aji de gallina. After this usually everyone helps in the clean-up process and serves themselves either a glass of wine, tea, or coffee traditionally a café con leche (which is mostly milk). My aunt also mentioned that the table is used for homework throughout the day and as well as any computer work that people may have. Additionally, I learned that my aunt usually uses the dining table when sewing or making clothing, pillows, and blankets.

Unfortunately, I was not there to witness all these different uses of the dining table. However, I was able to enjoy a traditional meal of Peruvian Chifa which is Asian style Peruvian cuisine. We had fried rice, a wonton like dish, salad, sweet potato, fried shrimp, etc. Interestingly enough my aunt and I had our interview before dinner right on the dining table. After dinner, I helped my aunt clean up and we talked more at the table over some coffee about my life/schooling. It was interesting to see and learn about all the different functions a dining table could serve. In particular, I found that a dining table could serve as a place for meetings, communal workspace, eating space, a needlework station, and even for classroom interviews! I found that the table brought people together and helped support people in their work and other life endeavors that do not only include eating. Without the table, many of these family interactions would not happen in the same way and I do think that it could contribute to carrying cultural traditions through generations and possibly strengthening family ties.

Blog #1 Ceviche- Francesca Cabada

Being that I am originally from Peru a staple dish that never fails to remind me of home has to be ceviche. Ceviche is a seafood dish typically made with a raw white fish and lime juice base. ceviche is central to Peruvian cuisine and unique because it is a raw dish that is cured/cooked by leaving the fish in the lime juice for about an hour or so. I mostly enjoy ceviche for its refreshing and tangy taste. The best way I can describe it is citrusy Poke like dish with accompanying flavors of sweet potato, Peruvian choclo (giant corn), and fresh herbs. As a kid I spent many summers in Peru, where my family would go to this beach called Punta Hermosa. All the kids would spend hours swimming and playing in the ocean, until we were exhausted, and we’d come running back up the beach to bask in the hot sun. Towards the end of the day my family would always order this huge dish of ceviche that could be brought out to us at the beach. Ceviche is a very sharable dish, being that it is usually brought out in a big bowl that is placed in the center of the table and everyone uses their own forks to eat from the bowl. This method of serving and eating the dish always brought everyone together and has left me with some really great memories of that time in my childhood.


I’ve inserted a photo of my mother and I, because i have a very large family and unfortunately I don’t have a photo that includes everyone. I have also inserted a photo of where I would spend my summers in Punta Hermosa, Peru.

After researching I found that ceviche resembled a very ancient dish that had been eaten in Peru up to 2,000 years ago around the civilization of the Moche. Its origin is widely debated but it is central to Latin America, particularly in the Andes region. It is most commonly consumed in Peru, Ecuador, and Chile but they are all different. Ceviche also has roots in Spain from a region called Granda, that may have originated during the time of colonization. Japanese-Peruvian chefs have also helped develop ceviche to what it is today and have combined traditional Japanese styles of cooking Sashimi in the preparations of ceviche. In particular there has been a fusion of ceviche and sushi, this blend of cultures has resulted in traditional sushi rolls with ceviche in the them (it’s delicious if you ever have the chance to try it). Currently, ceviche has become widely popular and has made its way into many restaurant’s around the globe.



  • 1 ½ pounds very fresh and high quality fish filets (corvina, halibut, escolar, hamachi, mahi-mahi)
  • 1 red onion, thinly sliced
  • 1 cup freshly squeezed lime juice, from about 35- 40 key limes, or 15-20 Peruvian limes
  • 1-2 habanero peppers, cut in half, without seeds and deveined
  • 2-3 sprigs of fresh cilantro
  • Salt to taste
  • Finely chopped cilantro to taste


    1. Cut the fish into small cubes, place in a glass bowl and cover with cold water and 1 tablespoon of salt, cover and refrigerate while you prepare the onions and juice the limes.
    2. Rub the thin onion slices with 1/2 tablespoon of salt and rinse in cold water.
    3. Rinse the fish to remove the salt
    4. Place the cubes of fish, half of the sliced onions, and hot peppers in a glass bowl and pour the lime juice over the ingredients. Sprinkle with a little bit of salt. To minimize the acidity of the limes you can put a few ice cubes in the mix.
    5. Cover and refrigerate for about 5-15 minutes.
    6. Remove the cilantro sprigs and the hot peppers from the mix. Taste the fish ceviche and add additional salt if needed.
    7. Use a spoon to place the ceviche in each serving bowl, add additional sliced onions to each bowl, sprinkle with finely chopped cilantro, and diced or sliced hot peppers.
    8. Serve immediately with your choice of sides and garnishes.

This website is where I found a recipe and where I got my images of ceviche from.



This website is where I got the image of Punta Hermosa from: