What are the Different Types of Stem Cells?

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Adult stem cells exist in several parts of the adult body. These cells have the ability to become specialized cells only for the type of tissue in which they exist. For example, liver stem cells can regenerate liver tissue, and muscle stem cells can regenerate muscle fibers, but not the other way around. Adult stem cells are important for replacing dead cells in the tissue and assist in the healing process after tissue injury.

Embryonic stem cells, also called pluripotent, are responsible for the creation of thousands of different cell types that make up our bodies. Pluripotent stem cells are able to create all cell types in the human body, unlike tissue stem cells. However, embryonic stem cells are usually limited during the development period, and are eventually replaced by adult stem cells.

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent cells that are derived from adult tissue using new scientific developments. Scientists have found that when adult stem cells are cultured in the right circumstances, they can revert their differentiation process and go back to the pluripotent state. This means that they can then be used to create any cell type in the body, when placed in the appropriate environment for specialized differentiation. iPS cells are studied extensively in the context of organ generation for transplants, as well as for various types of injuries and diseases.

Resources:

Stem Cells: What they are and what they do https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/bone-marrow-transplant/in-depth/stem-cells/art-20048117

Stem Cells: https://www.closerlookatstemcells.org/learn-about-stem-cells/types-of-stem-cells/