Cases of sexual violence have been reported since the 1980s, but preventive efforts have been taken at Emory since 1977. On November 1, 1977, Emory’s Student Government Association aims at rape prevention. The Student Government Association is an extremely influential group at Emory University. And to see them taking a stand on a major issue in the world really says a lot about Emory’s take on sexual violence. The student representatives in SGA are truly making an effort to prevent problems they might have seen on campus.

Two years later, on October 30, 1979, there is a rape seminar at Emory, which educates students about various prevention methods. The next month, University women are told how to deal with rape and learn how serious it can be and that no place is safe at all. What defines rape has been a confusing matter. “In a very short time we moved from a climate in which rape was widely regarded as rare to one in which rape is regarded as a widespread social problem” [1]. These changing occurrences of rape have been noted and Emory definitely tries to act upon thing and solve problems with various programs.

A couple years later, on October 6, 1981, a speaker comes to Emory who speaks of subliminal seduction. They dissect numerous ads for his audience as he projects each one on screen. This introduces new ways people can be sexual abused. Emory is really trying to take innovative approaches in dealing with sexual violence.

In that same year in 1981, Emory’s Training Center and Hospital Education Services co-sponsored an hour long self-defense program. They hope this program will change the national attitude toward crime from one of fear to one of rational assessment. Emory’s policy on sexual harassment states that all employees should be able to enjoy a work and educational environment that is free from all forms of discrimination, including sexual harassment.

Seminars continue at Emory University, which teaches students again how to recognize and deal with sexual harassment. There have even been plays have explore rape and had an enormous impact on viewers.

In 1995, there is a Sexual Assault Policy where Emory conducts various educational programs to make both students and employees aware of and to attempt to prevent rape, acquaintance rape and other forcible and nonforcible sex offenses. They begin to implement certain programs including Safety and Security Programs during Freshmen Orientation, Sexual Assault program conducted throughout the year, Self-Defense and Assault Avoidance for Women.
In 2002, the Members of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women (PCSW) review Emory’s sexual harassment information and offer future student programs focusing on sexual harassment and violence at Emory.
Emory has taken many efforts in preventing rape by spreading awareness in programs and lectures. The only way rape can be prevented and dealt with is with education. I am glad to see Emory facing the problem and trying to solve it rather than just ignore the facts.
[1] “I Wasn’t Raped, but…”: Revisiting Definitional Problems in Sexual Victimization by Nicola Gavey

Preventing Sexual Violence

The American College Health Association (ACHA) does see sexual violence as a serious issue on university campuses [1]. Prevention is key, and there are different levels of prevention. University campuses across the nation need to made these issues of sexual violence well known amongst all students so they can take the necessary precautions. It all starts with primary prevention, which is population based using broader environmental and system level strategies to attempt to prevent initial sexual violence before it gets worse. Faculty, staff, administrators, and students must play a key role in creating this ideal environment on campus [1].

At Emory, people have definitely began trying to prevent sexual violence for a long time. In 1984, the Training Center and Hospital Educations decides to take action and held a self defense program teaching techniques and scenarios involving rapists, purse snatchers, obscene telephone callers and more. This program was set in hopes of changing a national attitude toward crime from one of fear to rational assessment of a crime situation. During this time period, people are aware of crime going on and take precautionary measures to deal with the situation at hand. In 2002, as stated in the Emory Report, members of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women review sexual harassment policy at Emory. The shift towards prevention is definitely taking place.
In the Emory Wheel on October 7, 2005, it is stated that Emory sees a 9.5% drop in crime rate. But forcible sex charge had almost a 0% change in crime rate. Sexual violence still occurs everyday. In 2005, a rape survivor shares her story. Kelly is a 24 year old women who teaches first grade and was raped by a 18 year old rape her. She said that she “would never have a sense of normalcy again… and [her] world had crashed around [her]”. The effects that the victims go through hurt their whole outlook on life. To acknowledge this incident, there was a self-defence clinic event at Emory and different-colored shirts were hung on a clothesline in front of Candler Library, which symbolized difference forms of sexual assault. It’s good that Emory at least makes everyone aware of what could happen and teaches people how to prevent such incidences.
Alongside of this prevention with sexual violence, in 2005 lawmakers crack down on virtual sex, violence. It seems that certain video games specifically “Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas” has a hidden sex game where a player can press a command over and over while two virtual characters go at it. Even other games that have been considered to being safe and kid friendly such as “The Sims 2” has also come under fire for sexual content. It seems like these sexual references are everywhere in the world and they can maybe encourage such behaviors and actions and make it seem ok.
It seems like references to sexual violence is everywhere but it’s good to know that at least Emory has been trying to implement programs in order to spread awareness of the crime that goes on and provides solutions to prevent them.

[1] Shifting the Paradigm: Primary Prevention of Sexual Violence

Women’s Susceptibility to AIDS

In the United States, at the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, mostly gay men were identified as having high risk for this disease. No one really thought about women or heterosexual couples. But eventually women were actually found out to being much more susceptible to HIV/AIDS due to biological conditions and social conditions. Women account for almost half of the 40 million people living with HIV now [3]. The proportion of women’s HIV cases has tripled from 8% to 27% since 1985 [2].

Women face many challenges that can make them more susceptible to HIV. For one, especially in developing countries, some gender inequalities lead to certain behaviors that can lead contracting HIV. In some cultures, women are not free to refuse sex or insist on using condoms. In some of these cultures, men believe they have power over women and do not let them have a say in the situation [2]. Also in some of these cultures, women might not have the same access to education that men have and may not even be aware of the methods of preventions and consequences. The risk of sexual violence can also be extremely high in some places, possibly poorer environments. According to the Higgins article, women that were more likely to get HIV were Black or Latina and lived in very poor sections of the United States [1]. The culture and living conditions plays a major role in disease transmission. Access to education is low in certain areas and can directly result in more people contracting diseases such as HIV.

In addition to the social issues women face, they also have biological differences that make them more susceptible to diseases than men. Women are exposed to infectious fluids longer during sex [1].  Their cells lining of the cervix may also be more vulnerable to HIV [1]. There has been a lot of research proving this. For example, in the Official Journal of the International AIDS Society, there was a article published in 2008 titled, Vulnerability of women in southern Africa to infection with HIV: biological determinants and priority health sector interventions, the determined that bacterial vaginosis is associated with HIV [4]. This is something women have no control over but have to take the necessary precautions. There is no other choice.

People are aware of these issues, and there are many things being done about this. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has placed an emphasis on HIV research [2]. They fund and sponsor research around the world. One example of a type of research is developing a mircobicide gel that women could easily apply and lower the chance of infection. Efforts like these will slowly contribute to the decrease of infections. But it is difficult to lower the risk of HIV infection by women compared to men still due to all the social and biological factors. Women are most in danger of contracting HIV due to gender disparities, poverty, culture and sexual norms, lack of education or sexual violence.

[1] Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women’s Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS

[2] http://aids.about.com/od/womensresources/a/womenimpact.htm

[3] http://stke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;308/5728/1582

[4] http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Abstract/2008/12004/Vulnerability_of_women_in_southern_Africa_to.4.aspx


Human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS. This is a serious condition where affected individual’s immune system fails on them. According to the CDC, there are about 1.1 million Americans who are living with HIV, and 21% of them do not even know they have it [2]. The biggest problem with HIV/AIDS is ignorance and people unaware that they can spread it. As for most sexually transmitted disease, the best way of prevention is just abstinence. Safe sex can never be 100% safe, and people should always be aware of the consequences, even if they can be slim. You never know when you can be a part of the 1%. Sometimes your partner might not even know that he or she has AIDS. It’s better to just be safe and test yourself and your partner before intercourse. “Silence has equaled death” [1].

By the 1990s, one person would be infected with HIV every hour everyday. HIV/AIDS has become the leading cause of mortality for people aged 25-44 [1]. Many of those people actually are infected with HIV in their teenage years.

Experts have determined that AIDS largely affect populations with poor health, education or housing. Living conditions determine a lot about a person and the type of education they are exposed to. Also people in lower living conditions might not even have access to common contraceptives or even know what they are.  They might not even know what HIV or AIDS is and have no way of testing themselves. Also some of these patterns are seen globally. HIV/AIDS is seen a lot in Africa and slowly coming in South Asia.

It was estimated that in 1990s that “20 to 30% of gay youths would be infected by their 30th birthday” [1]. Out of all the HIV-infected Americans in 1998, 63% of them were African American. A survey conducted by the CDC, determined that from 1998 to 200, about a third of gay black men in their 20s are HIV positive [1]. Another one of the major causes of HIV/AIDS is intravenous drug use. About half of the people in New York City with HIV were intravenous drug users.

The search for a cure is still ongoing. But there is an increase in new effective drug therapies that keep people with HIV healthy and increase their life span. The CDC has implemented a variety of programs in order to improve treatment, care and support for people with AIDS. Some of the divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention groups include the Prevention-Intervention Research and Support, Prevention-Surveillance and Epidemiology, Global AIDS Program and more [2]. In an article in the Wall Street Journal, there is mention of finding a vaccine for HIV. Research is extremely important with HIV and there are many advances globally trying to find a cure or prevention. Researchers from the Center for AIDS Program of Research in South Africa found out a key change in the “outer coating of the HIV virus that has enabled two HIV-infected women to develop broadly neutralizing antibodies” [3].  This can greatly advance the field of HIV research. The problem with the HIV virus is that it is always changing, but they were able to create one antibody that was able to kill up to 88% of HIV strains from around the world” [3]. This study represents a “key advance in the vaccine field” [3]. It will take a long time to really find a solid cure for HIV, as most research takes a long time. But with slow steps, I am optimistic that large strides will occur in this field.

Successful AIDS prevention is based on two principles: “It must recognize the urgency of the problem of HIV and the exigencies, both person and structural, of the people it is targeting. And it must respect their social norms: their identities, values, and desires, expressed in their relationship between individuals and within communities” [1]. I feel with proper awareness, education and research, we can strive towards a better future with curing and preventing AIDS.


[1] Community: Risk, Identity, and Love in the Age of AIDS by Judith Levine

[2] http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/aboutDHAP.htm



According to Merriam Webster, abortion is “the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus”. There have been countless disputes over the moral dilemmas of abortion. But where the issue arises is the question when exactly does life starts? This answer varies amongst individuals and religion. Does life start immediately at conception or later after the embryo is formed?

This issue has even come up in the current presidential election. Obama believes that it is a personal choice that should be made without interference from politicians, whereas Romney opposes abortion with the exception for rape, incest and danger to the life of the mother. The Indiana Republic Senate candidate Richard Mourdock said that abortion should be illegal even in the cases of rape. He said he “think[s] that even when life begins in that horrible situation of rape, that it is something that God intended to happen” [3]. These varied opinions in politics are such a taste of the many different opinions in the world. Some people, who are against abortion, label pro-abortion individuals as “baby killers” [1]. Some people label women who get abortions as selfish. Everyone is entitled to his or her own opinions, but making laws on this becomes extremely difficult.

In France, they have a different outlook than America. They are passing a law to “fully reimburse all abortions and to make contraception free for minors” [2]. Making all abortions free give and women the right to decide whether or not they want to stop their pregnancy. France also allows minors to have abortions without parental consent, which I believe is a little too lenient. France was also one of the first countries to have the drug RU-486, which causes the embryo itself to detach from the uterine wall [2]. This is different than the morning after pill in the United States, which prevents fertilization from even occurring, preventing pregnancy itself. The pill that is in Europe, is much more similar in abortion. People in France seem to be a lot more open and accepting of abortion and it’s pretty surprising as to how open they are about it. Some may even say it comes to the point where they are promoting abortion because they are offering it free of charge.

On the other hand, back in America, people still have many debates on abortion. Some of the talk has been regarding the timing of abortion and what time exactly makes it ok. Of course having an abortion in the first trimester is better than having one later one. And public support for the first trimester abortion is actually the most (60-70%). There is also a large majority that supports abortion when the women’s life is endangered by pregnancy, or if it was caused from rape or incest, or when the fetus is found to be “defective” [1].

People in America will always have differing views about abortion and it is kind of unavoidable. I feel the government should not get too involved and force decisions amongst people and just let people decide on their own what they want to do. Of course, there will always be protests for people who are very much anti-abortion, but people do have the right to voice their opinions to the public.

[1] From Contraception to Abortion: A Moral Continuum by Wendy Simonds

[2] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/26/france-free-abortion-bill_n_2023729.html

[3] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/28/ron-johnson-mitt-romney-abortion_n_2032145.html?utm_hp_ref=elections-2012

[4] http://www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2012/10/28/presidential-stances-on-abortion/

Condoms, Alcohol & Sexual Health

“Approximately 19 million STD infections are diagnosed annually in the United States” [1]. This shocking number took my attention. I did not realize that these many infections were diagnosed each year and 9.5 million of them happen among people at such a young age between 15 and 24. The spread of these STD infections can be caused by poor knowledge of condom use and other sexual contraceptives. About “80% of college students have engaged in sexual intercourse”, but only one-third of them use condoms [1]. I believe that knowledge about these issues should be addressed in a required class in the first year of college because the spread of STD diseases can be preventable if people are educated. Emory used to have PE 101 required our freshmen year that taught us some basics about sexual health, which was a good attempt. But I feel most people did not really care and realize the gravity of the issues.
People also seem to take part in riskier sexual activities when heavily intoxicated [1]. This may seem obvious, but should actually be taken seriously. In a journal article published in American Psychology titled “Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation, and prevention”, it is stated that “people who are heavier drinkers or drug users tend to have more sexual partners and to use condoms less consistently” [2]. This may be due to the fact of alcohol’s effect on decision making and false confidence. Even recently, there have been some reports supporting these claims [1]. However, alcohol’s effect does vary amongst different individuals and the sexual situation. Sample size needs to be taken account for and I feel there would be varying results based on different environments.
On the other hand, some studies show quite the opposite, supporting the idea that there is no relationship of alcohol consumption and condom use, but a “positive relationship of overall frequency of drinking with sex and overall frequency of condom use” [2]. These two results are polar opposites and goes with the claim that alcohol affects people differently. One study takes this idea one step further and observes alcohol and condom use by various type of sexual encounters. In a study published in Sexual Transmitted Diseases titled “Alcohol and condom use: a meta-analysis of event-level studies”, it was stated that drinking during the first intercourse had a correlation with lower condom usage, but afterwards during recent sexual encounters alcohol was not correlated with condom use [3]. This study make the claim that alcohol does not always link to unprotected sex, but the relationship between the two depends on “content and sexual experience of the partner” [3].
The two differing views both hold their validity but I have to agree with the one that says alcohol’s effect on condom use varies among individuals. Each person is different and has varying backgrounds and knowledge. Some people maybe have started learning about sexual health as early as middle school, whereas maybe some people just became aware of it in college. Maybe condom use is second nature to certain people and they can just perform the necessary precautions before intercourse without even thinking. Family background also has a lot to do with it as well: some families may be more conservative and traditional not speaking about sex, whereas other families can be more open about the topic of sex. Even though individual’s knowledge can vary before coming to college, I feel everyone should be on the same page at least during the first year of college about education in STDs, contraceptives and sexual health in general.

[1] Condom Use with a Casual Partner: What Distinguishes College Students’ Use When Intoxicated? by Antonia Abbey, Michele R. Parkhill, Philip O. Buck, and Christopher Saenz.
[2] Leigh, B., Stall, R. (1993) Substance use and risky sexual behavior for exposure to HIV: Issues in methodology, interpretation, and prevention. Am Psychol 48(10): 1035-1045.
[3] Leigh, B.C. (2002) Alcohol and condom use: a meta-analysis of event-level studies. Sex Transm Dis 29(8):476-82.

Coming Out

Coming out takes a lot of courage and confidence. It can be rewarding, but also can lead to negative results. The pros of coming out are gaining self-confidence and becoming a part of a new community. But sometimes, gay individuals can feel isolated and more comfortable just hidden from society staying in the closet [1].

Unfortunately gay and lesbian people have been faced with much social bullying in America. As stated in the New York Times on May 20, 2011, a homosexual freshmen at Rutgers University committed suicide after his roommate had put up a video of a romantic interlude with him and another man [2]. This is extremely unacceptable and it is terrible that things like this are still happening in the world.

After this, the New York Times began a project entitled “Coming Out” so America could better understand this generation’s realities and expectations [2]. They contacted about 100 gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender kids from all types of environments and spoke with them. It is interesting to see how gay individuals face different treatment in various parts of the country. There is even another project called the “The Trevor Project” which hopes to provide counseling to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender kids. I’m glad there are support groups for individuals that have to go through bullying like this. No one should have to go through this sort of trauma.

Even though instances such as these have been happening up till present day, efforts have been taken to prevent them since 1996. In the Emory Report on September 30, 1996, it was stated in an article titled “Shared Heart exhibit features stories of lesbian and gay youth” that “the shared heart exhibition’s creators hope that the stories of courage and victory told by the young people whose lives are documented in the text and photos will help create a sense of belonging for lesbian, gay and bisexual students and build understanding and acceptance with their peers, teachers, parents and communities”. This is reassuring that there are many efforts being taken in order to prevent this discrimination.

In addition, in the Emory Report on June 9, 1997, in an article titled “’Queering the South’ connects academics, activists and artists” states that there was a conference that will “bring together representatives from each of these groups to focus on how living in the South shapes lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender experiences”. Again almost a year later after the Shared Heart exhibition, there are even more conferences addressing issues amongst these individuals.

People are definitely aware of the type of bullying that occurs among homosexual individuals, and many people actively take actions to prevent this bullying. In media especially, with shows like Glee where they show same sex kissing, these interactions are being shown as acceptable in society [2]. Even pop stars such as Lady Gaga sing songs indirectly accepting different people with her song entitled “Born This Way”. But there will always be people who are not ok with this type of interactions.

[1] Queering the South: Construction of Southern/Queer Identity by Donna Jo Smith

[2] http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/23/us/23out.html?_r=0


Changing Views on Sexual Identity

People’s reactions to sexuality have been changing throughout our history drastically. Especially with new terms of sexual identity coming into play such as bisexuals, asexuals and transgenders. There are boundaries between the terms lesbian, bisexual, and unlabeled women, but these boundaries are “relatively fluid” [2]. Bisexuality has been labeled as a third type of sexual orientation. On the other hand, some researchers characterized asexuality as negative. [1] It’s not the norm. The confusion about sexual identity has always been apparent in America.
It seems like people who have different sexual identities have been facing discrimination even since the 1980s. In 1981, it seems people were not as open to homosexuals as shown during the “Homosexual Holocaust”. Homophobic violence used to be prevalent as people would throw eggs at gay people and their cars in gay bars. Homosexuals also had to deal with taunts and jeers from from passing motorists’ windows. Also the police would fail to respond promptly to calls in gay neighborhoods. In present day, just 31 years later, this type of behavior seems completely unacceptable to most Americans. It still may happen but not as frequently. Later on that year in 1981, Emory starts to acknowledge sex where Wilson Bryan Key speaks about “Subliminal Seduction. He dissects numerous ads while pointing out hidden cues and symbols, which show perverted images of sex and death. This changing notion of sexuality associated with negative things was slowly taking place.
But it seems now that people are opening up more to the idea of different categories of sexuality. In Berkeley, California on September 23, 2012 celebrated “Bisexual Pride and Bi Visibility Day”. This day was created to acknowledge bisexuals separately from gays and lesbians. Some Bisexual individuals claim they feel overlooked or misunderstood. Some feel they just get pushed to the side in the LGBT group. [3] Even Google is acknowledged bisexuals as they recently unlock the term ‘Bisexual’ from auto complete in Google search. In the past this word had been blocked from Google’s Auto Complete but after BiNet USA, a bisexual advocacy group, protected. This was a big step in terms of bisexuals gaining the respect of being accepted into society. [4]
In addition to bisexuals, transgenders also have been more accepted in society and are definitely well involved in the entertainment industry. In 2005, in the Emory Wheel a restaurant, Nickiemoto’s, was featured that has sushi and drag queens. Every Monday evenings, they have a drag queen performance where the performers took turns lip-syncing and erotically flirting with customers while singing the song “I Touch Myself”. The writer of that Emory Wheel article started that “frankly they were more beautiful than some female models I’ve seen…drag queens are an entertaining addition to a deliciously trendy meal”.
These changing views on sexual identity are making America a more acceptable place. Can every single person be open to these new sexual categories? No. But they are definitely becoming more a part of normal American society.

[1] Asexuality: Classification and Characterization by Nicole Prause and Cynthia A. Graham
[2] Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study by Lisa M. Diamond
[3] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/20/berkeley-bisexual-pride-day_n_1900566.html?utm_hp_ref=bisexual
[4] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/11/google-bisexual-auto-complete-instant-search_n_1872252.html?utm_hp_ref=bisexual

A New America?

As the debate over gay marriage has been active throughout the years, I feel as though Americans truly have progressed over the years in terms of accepting gay and lesbian people in society. Just today an article was posted in the Huffington Post stating that Chris Kluwe, a Minnesota Vikings punter, defends gay marriage. More and more supporters are appearing and fighting for gay rights. The article says that it’s about “being able to lead your life free of oppression” [2]. Kluwe is now campaigning on behalf of a group called Minnesotans for Equality, urging votes to beat back a ballot initiative in Minnesota that would prevent gay and lesbians from marrying. In the Pew Forum Religion & Public Life article titled “A Contentious Debate: Same-Sex Marriage in the U.S” in 2009, it was started that four states have legalized same sex marriage [1]. As of now, six states have legalized same sex marriage: Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont as well as the District of Columbia.
People are becoming more and more open about allowing gay people to form a life longing bond with their partner. Gay people have been calling for the right to marry since the 1960s, but same sex marriage has only become a national issue within the last 20 years. In addition to allow gay and lesbian people to marry, in June 2009 President Obama allowed family medical leave and other health benefits to same-sex partners.
But of course there are always people on the other side. For example the Catholic Church and many evangelical Christian groups have opposed gay marriage. In some instances, the “opponents of legalizing same-sex marriage have consistently outnumbered supporter” [1]. Gay marriage sometimes goes against the values of certain religions. Changing their views can be extremely difficult. In addition to religious groups opposing gay marriage, some political campaigns oppose same sex marriage as well [4].
But besides all the opposition towards gay marriage, Americans’ support for the moral acceptability of gay and lesbian relations crossed the 50% threshold in 2010 according to Gallup politics. Even in media now, gay people are becoming major roles in TV shows and movies. For example in Modern Family, Partner, Ugly Betty, Glee, Pretty Little Liars, Gossip Girl, and even Friends there is a least one gay or lesbian character. Especially in Modern family, the gay or lesbian character does not seem to be excluded, but rather seen in a positive light. With the rising awareness of gay people in media, I feel people are more open to the idea and acceptance of these individuals.
There will always be debate between the two sides of supporting and opposing same sex marriage. But I do feel that America has come a long way in becoming more open about the idea through the government and media.

[1] http://www.pewforum.org/Gay-Marriage-and-Homosexuality/A-Contentious-Debate-Same-Sex-Marriage-in-the-US.aspx
[2] http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/23/chris-kluwe-minnesota-vikings-gay-marriage-letter_n_1907200.html
[3] http://www.gallup.com/poll/135764/americans-acceptance-gay-relations-crosses-threshold.aspx

Yun Ch’i Ho’s Experiences at Emory

Yun Ch’i Ho was an extraordinary figure and Emory’s first international student. In Korea, he was an influential political leader as well as a Christian missionary. Through his diaries, we are able to first hand experience what he went through in Oxford, Georgia. At the beginning of most of his diary entries, he described the weather and the emotions associated with it, positive and negative. In some of his entries, he even wrote the actual temperature and converted it from Fahrenheit to Celsius showing the math. Yun Ch’i Ho seemed to be greatly influenced by his emotions due to his description of the weather as he described one day on January 31, 1892 as “just cold enough to invigorate the body; the Sun just warm enough to cheer the spirit”. He also seemed to have a great appreciation for nature as on the same day he as he “thank[ed] the great God so much for the glorious aspect of nature as for my capability of enjoying such”. On the other hands, some bad day such as March 18, 1892, he described as “bitter cold-strong northwest- flakes of snow-frowning sky”. He also seemed very precise due to his accurate mathematical calculations at the top of the page.

During his time at Emory, he was close to Warren A. Candler, the president of Emory at the time. Yun stated “The best part of my life has been guided and directed under the providence of God, by Emory men”. He saw Emory men as superior and sometimes blamed his culture for how he was treated in society. During this time in the 19th century, race was mainly just white or black and Yun Ch’i Ho felt like he did not fit in. During his time at Emory, he came with hopes of gaining a valuable education in America while doing missionary work. But this discrimination he felt was always with him through his time at Emory.

Early on at the university, he seemed to grow fond of various women. On January 26, 1892, he stated in his diary “my dearest Mauria. I love you so much”. But the next on February 17, 1892, he seemed to address a new girl, Laurie, with “dear”. He used to go to the Candler’s for dinner frequently, and in that same entry, he describes the girl’s movements as “their graceful movements, polite and orderly behavior at the table”. On April 18, 1891, Yun noted, “if there are some things in America that [he] envied more than others, they are, first its beautiful women”. Yun seemed to be a very emotional person and seemed to be very moved by women. Yun thought that he would have no chance with any of the white women at Emory because none of them would even consider marrying him due to his race.

Yun developed a good relation with Nettie Candler, the wife of Warren Candler. On March 15, 1892, they went to a YMCA convention in Griffin, GA that had a “population of between 9 or 10 thousand [and] hospitable people”. After the convention, Mrs. Candler said he could have gotten a sweetheart in Griffin if he had stayed longer. But Yun Ch’i Ho feeling sorry for himself because of his background took that as “even if you stayed long, who would have you for a sweetheart—you a Corean!” He felt “humiliation, mortification, insult and despair are the condition or fees for being a Cor!” Even though Yun was such an influential individual in Korea, he seemed to be feel discrimination tremendously in America. Yun was a brave individual and initiated the revolutionary trend of international students coming to Emory.

[1] Romance and Race in the Jim Crow South: Yun Ch’i-ho and the Personal Politics of Christian Reform by Andrew Urban

[2] Yun Ch’i Ho’s personal diaries from 1891-1892

[3] http://www.emory.edu/EMORY_MAGAZINE/spring2004/korean.html