Recent articles 52 in 52:
Nobay et al. 2004. A prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of midazolam vs haloperidol vs lorazepam in the chemical restraint of violent and severely agitated patients. Acad Emerg Med. 11(7): 744-749.
Take home point:
In this double-blind, randomized trial of 111 violent and severely agitated patients in a county emergency department receiving one of three chemical restraint agents, midazolam was found to be most efficacious in terms of time to onset and arousal. Midazolam also has rapid IM absorption and predictable sedation levels. No adverse effects were noted in the patients receiving midazolam.
Midazolam 5mg IM: Mean Time to Sedation 18.3 min; Mean Time to Arousal 81.9 min
Haloperidol 5mg IM: Mean Time to Sedation 28.3 min; Mean Time to Arousal 126.5 min
Lorazepam 2mg IM: Mean Time to Sedation 32.2 min; Mean Time to Arousal 217.2 min