Imperial Titles in Late Roman Documents

Sorry for the delay on my blog post! I’ve finally managed to figure out the coding to search for all inflections of the various nostra/mea epithets in Latin documents. I was having trouble using .*? to account for varying numbers of characters between nostra/mea and its accompanying noun (e.g. nostra clementia), as R was, despite the “?”, still being far too greedy. str_locate_all showed that it was pairing nostra‘s and titles that were thousands of characters apart!

My solution has been to ask R to search for combinations of nostra/mea and the accompanying noun with anywhere from 0 to 80 characters inbetween. Furthermore, I’ve simplified my code by only searching for the parts of these words that don’t inflect. So, for example, I wrote:

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}clementia.{0,80}|clementia.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}clementia.{0,80}|clementia.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #CLEMENTIA

This accounts for all inflections; it turns up nostra/mea clementianostrae/meae clementiae, and nostram/meam clementiam. I did this for all of the imperial epithets that I have identified within the Theodosian Code. I then used those results to locate and read each instance in the Latin text, both so as to confirm their use as imperial epithets within their respective contexts, and so as to record their exact location within the Code. It’s been time consuming, but very rewarding. I now have complete and accurate results for their frequency within the Code:

rplot

Now that I have an effective formula down, I will run through the rest of my documents this week: the main ones are the Code of Justinian, Symmachus’ Relationes to the emperors, and a series of Latin Panegyrics. I hope to have a few of these done before class on Thursday; I’ll update this post with those results.

My code

#THEODOSIAN CODE

CTh.scan <- scan(“~/Education/Emory/Coursework/Digital Humanities Methods/Project/Theodosian Code Raw Text.txt”,
what=”character”, sep=”\n”)
CTh.df <- data.frame(CTh.scan, stringsAsFactors=FALSE)
CTh.df <- str_replace_all(string = CTh.df$CTh.scan, pattern = “[:punct:]”, replacement = “”)
CTh.df <- data.frame(CTh.df, stringsAsFactors = FALSE)
CTh.lines <- tolower(CTh.df[,1])
book.headings <- grep(“book”, CTh.lines)
start.lines <- book.headings + 1
end.lines <- book.headings[2:length(book.headings)] – 1
end.lines <- c(end.lines, length(CTh.lines))
CTh.df <- data.frame(“start” = start.lines, “end”=end.lines, “text”=NA)
i <- 1
for (i in 1:length(CTh.df$end))
{CTh.df$text[i] <- paste(CTh.lines[CTh.df$start[i]:CTh.df$end[i]], collapse = ” “)}

CTh.df$Book <- seq.int(nrow(CTh.df))

#String Extracts of Imperial Titles

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}aeternita.{0,80}|aeternita.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}aeternita.{0,80}|aeternita.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #AETERNITAS

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}clementia.{0,80}|clementia.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}clementia.{0,80}|clementia.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #CLEMENTIA

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}lenita.{0,80}|lenita.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}lenita.{0,80}|lenita.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #LENITAS

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}lenitud.{0,80}|lenitud.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}lenitud.{0,80}|lenitud.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #LENITUDO

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}maiesta.{0,80}|maiesta.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}maiesta.{0,80}|maiesta.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #MAIESTAS

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}mansuetud.{0,80}|mansuetud.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}mansuetud.{0,80}|mansuetud.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #MANSUETUDO

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}moderatio.{0,80}|moderatio.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}moderatio.{0,80}|moderatio.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #MODERATIO

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostrum.{0,80}numen.{0,80}|numen.{0,80}nostrum.{0,80}|nostr.{0,80}numin.{0,80}|numin.{0,80}nostr.{0,80}|meum.{0,80}numen.{0,80}|numen.{0,80}meum.{0,80}|me.{0,80}numin.{0,80}|numin.{0,80}me.{0,80}”) #NUMEN

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}perennita.{0,80}|perennita.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}perennita.{0,80}|perennita.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #PERENNITAS

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}pieta.{0,80}|pieta.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}pieta.{0,80}|pieta.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #PIETAS

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}scientia.{0,80}|scientia.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}scientia.{0,80}|scientia.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #SCIENTIA

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}serenita.{0,80}|serenita.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}serenita.{0,80}|serenita.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #SERENITAS

str_extract_all(string = CTh.df$text, pattern = “nostra.{0,80}tranquillita.{0,80}|tranquillita.{0,80}nostra.{0,80}|mea.{0,80}tranquillita.{0,80}|tranquillita.{0,80}mea.{0,80}”) #TRANQUILLITAS

#Imperial Title Sums

aeternitas <- 2
clementia <- 93
lenitas <- 2
lenitudo <- 2
maiestas <- 12
mansuetudo <- 59
moderatio <- 2
numen <- 27
perennitas <- 12
pietas <- 9
scientia <- 32
serenitas <- 57
tranquillitas <- 10

#Imperial Title Sum Graph

Frequency <- c(clementia, mansuetudo, serenitas, scientia, numen, maiestas, tranquillitas, pietas, aeternitas, lenitas, lenitudo, moderatio)
Title <- c(“Clementia”, “Mansuetudo”, “Serenitas”, “Scientia”, “Numen”, “Maiestas”, “Tranquillitas”, “Pietas”, “Aeternitas”, “Lenitas”, “Lenitudo”, “Moderatio”)
sum.df <- cbind.data.frame(Title, Frequency)
sum.df$Title <- factor(sum.df$Title, levels = sum.df$Title[order(sum.df$Frequency)]) #Reorders dataframe based on Frequency

ggplot(data=sum.df, aes(x=Title, Frequency), y=Frequency) + geom_bar(stat = “identity”) + coord_flip() #Word Total Graph

Index of Imperial Epithets in the Theodosian Code

Nostra Aeternitas

10.22.3

Mea Aeternitas

12.1.160

Nostra Clementia

1.1.5
1.7.4
1.14.1
2.6.1
2.8.20
2.23.1
5.1.2
5.2.1
5.15.21
5.16.31
6.2.26
6.4.18
6.4.33
6.23.4
6.30.4
6.35.14
7.1.16
7.1.17
7.4.21
7.4.25
7.6.5
7.13.13
7.21.4
8.5.1
8.5.5
8.5.30
8.5.44
8.5.50
8.5.54
8.5.56
8.5.57
8.10.3
9.16.12
9.17.2
9.21.6
9.34.7
9.40.16
9.40.16
9.41.1
9.45.4
10.1.16
10.10.26
10.10.32
10.10.34
10.14.1
10.15.2
11.7.15
11.16.7
11.16.8
11.20.4
11.28.3
11.28.14
11.30.13
11.30.54
11.30.57
11.30.61
11.36.24
12.1.14
12.1.14
12.1.15
12.1.146
12.1.169
12.1.184
12.6.30
12.10.1
12.12.4
12.12.14
13.1.20
13.3.17
14.10.3
14.15.5
14.17.5
14.17.14
15.1.44
15.1.49
15.3.4
15.6.1
16.1.2
16.2.42
16.3.2
16.5.46
16.5.49
16.5.54
16.5.54
16.5.60
16.5.63
16.8.17
16.11.2

Mea Clementia

1.8.2
1.8.3
6.26.17
7.16.2
11.20.5

Nostra Lenitas

1.22.2
10.8.3

Nostra Lenitudo

8.12.6
15.1.5

Nostra Maiestas

6.21.1
6.27.17
6.27.17
8.4.26
8.5.39
11.29.1
11.30.66
11.30.68
13.3.18
14.3.18
15.1.47
16.10.20

Nostra Mansuetudo

1.2.8
1.5.9
1.10.1
1.15.8
1.28.1
3.9.1
4.14.1
6.2.19
6.22.8
6.23.4
6.30.18
6.30.20
7.13.9
8.5.12
8.5.22
8.5.54
8.5.58
8.8.2
8.10.2
9.16.10
9.30.2
10.7.2
10.7.2
10.9.2
10.9.3
10.10.20
10.16.2
11.7.21
11.12.4
11.16.11
11.16.14
11.28.3
11.28.5
11.30.32
11.30.41
11.30.41
12.6.5
12.6.12
12.6.28
12.12.5
12.12.10
12.12.10
12.19.3
13.3.4
13.5.38
13.6.5
14.1.2
14.4.3
14.9.1
15.3.1
15.5.5
15.7.4
15.7.6
15.7.9
16.2.12
16.5.7
16.5.38
16.10.2

Mea Mansuetudo

12.1.121

Nostra Moderatio

6.30.24
8.18.3

Nostrum Numen

1.2.12
1.9.2
2.23.1
2.33.4
5.12.3
5.12.3
6.4.29
6.4.32
6.5.2
6.14.3
6.23.3
6.30.15
7.7.4
7.8.3
8.1.13
8.5.40
8.5.62
9.40.11
11.21.3
11.28.15
11.30.49
12.12.7
15.4.1
15.5.5
16.4.4
16.8.13

Meum Numen

11.1.33

Nostra Perennitas

1.1.5
2.4.4
4.4.5
5.15.18
7.7.4
9.19.3
9.38.8
10.20.10
12.12.9
13.5.12
15.1.31

Mea Perennitas

6.30.21

Nostra Pietas

5.12.3
6.10.1
10.26.1
11.1.34
11.1.36
13.1.21
14.26.2
15.1.37

Mea Pietas

14.16.2

Nostra Serenitas

1.1.2
1.12.5
1.22.2
2.16.2
4.4.3
5.13.2
5.16.31
6.8.1
6.22.3
6.23.1
6.26.13
6.27.8
6.29.3
6.30.17
7.1.17
7.8.10
8.5.14
8.5.22
8.5.32
8.5.45
8.5.48
8.5.56
8.7.16
9.19.3
9.38.6
9.38.9
9.40.7
9.40.20
9.42.14
9.42.19
9.42.20
10.10.11
11.2.5
11.16.20
11.28.4
11.30.47
11.30.56
11.30.64
11.31.9
11.31.9
12.13.6
13.10.8
14.2.1
14.4.8
15.1.11
15.1.26
15.1.42
15.1.51
15.5.5
15.7.6
15.7.6
16.2.37
16.5.12
16.5.14
16.8.22
16.11.3

Mea Serenitas
11.20.5

Nostra Scientia

1.1.5
1.5.1
1.15.2
1.16.6
1.29.1
2.18.1
6.4.21
7.1.12
8.5.25
9.1.1
9.1.13
9.4.1
9.21.1
9.34.3
10.8.3
11.7.16
11.16.8
11.16.8
11.29.2
11.30.1
11.30.1
11.30.9
11.30.18
11.30.18
11.37.1
12.1.1
12.12.3
15.1.2
15.1.2
15.1.30
16.10.1
16.10.15

Nostra Tranquillitas

1.2.10
1.6.4
5.15.18
6.4.31
6.12.1
8.7.16
11.30.31
16.1.4
16.2.15
16.4.1

 

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